Jordan's capital, has been inhabited almost continuously for more than 9000 years.  Amman was renamed Philadelphia by the Hellenistic ruler Ptolemy II and was later incorporated into the Decapolis, during which time it was famous for its sumptuous architecture and enlightened cultural centers. In the seventh century, following the Persian onslaught, Philadelphia reverted to its old Semitic name of Amman. During the Ummayad era, Amman thrived due to its strategic location along the trade routes and also for its military position. However, this dominant political position subsided until the nineteenth century, during which time the city of Salt had stolen much of the limelight from Amman. 

The Temple of Hercules is similar in its structure to the Temple of Artemis in Jerash. Inside the cella, or sacred inner chamber, was a protruding rock that the scholars associated with the Ammonite sacred rock of the Temple of Milkom. A monumental staircase connected the temple with the forum, theaters, colonnaded streets, shops and other public activities in the city center below the Citadel. The traces of the staircase had long gone, but the visitors could still see the gate that connected the staircase to the temple.

It is one of the most interesting antiquities sites in the Amman region, because of its association with a religious legend propagated by both Islam and Christianity.
There were six Christian boys who ran away from a pagant emperor and hid in a cave and slept. They woke up in the Byzantine Era and the ruler feted them as evidence of God’s power. The eight small tombs within the cave are sealed, except for one which has had a small hole cut though its end. One can see the remains of what seems to be seven small human skulls and a dog.


The theater, that is similar in style to the South Theater in Jerash, accommodated nearly 6,000 spectators. Vaulted passageways provided access into the theater, which has been partially rebuilt and is still used for performances today.
The east and west vaults, now house two small ethnographic and folklore museums. The odeon, the small theater immediately north-east of the theater, occupied the east corner of the forum, the city’s main public square. Now, most of the forum lies beneath the modern street and surrounding buildings.

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